Research Article Creative Commons, CC-BY
Genome & Classification of Viruses
*Corresponding author: Feleke Eriso, Department of Biology, Biomedical Stream, Wachemo University, Hossana, Ethiopia.
Received: August 21, 2023; Published: August 28, 2023
The types of classification of viruses available in literature include ICTV Classification, Holmes Classification, LHT System of Virus Classification, Casjens & Kings Classification of Virus, and Baltimore Classification of Virus. Out of the aforementioned schemes of classification Baltimore classification of viruses which classified viruses into seven groups was found to be more pragmatic than others being free from bewildering events. Baltimore classification of viruses placed mRNA in the centre and described the obligatory pathways to mRNA from DNA or RNA Genomes. It is an obligatory relationship between the viral Genome & its mRNA.
The key objective of this study is to forward a pragmatically consistent and persuasive scheme for the classification of viruses where the Genome is the unit of both structure & function of every individual of viruses and of all other genomic-things.
Keywords: Genome, Viruses, mRNA, Classification, Genomic-things, DNA, Viral Protein, Replication, Positive sense (+) strand, Negative sense (-) strand
The types of classification of viruses available in literature include ICTV Classification, Holmes Classification, LHT System of Virus Classification, Casjens & Kings Classification of Vrus, and Baltimore Classification of Virus. Out of the aforementioned schemes of classification Baltimore classification of viruses was found to be more pragmatic than others being free from bewildering events. Based on Baltimore classification viruses can be categorized into seven groups. Baltimore created his classification scheme based on the central role of the translational machinery and the importance of viral mRNAs in programming viral protein synthesis. In this scheme, he placed mRNA in the center, and described the pathways to mRNA from DNA or RNA Genomes [1-15]. This arrangement highlights the obligatory relationship between the viral Genome and its mRNA. By convention, mRNA is defined as a positive sense (+) strand because it is the template for protein synthesis. A strand of DNA or the equivalent sequence is also called the (+) sense strand. RNA and DNA strands that are complementary to the (+) sense strand is, of course, called negative sense (-) strands [1,9]. The Baltimore classification system of viruses is pragmatically valid molecular algorithm for genomologists of virology. The concepts of this scheme are useful for understanding information flow about viruses that have different types of Genomes [16-21]. The key objective of this study is to forward a pragmatically consistent and persuasive scheme for the classification of viruses where the Genome is the unit of both structure & function of every individual of viruses and of all other genomic things.
Methodology & Results
The contents of Figures here below are designed to serve as evidential Results in the target ful strategy of this study and that is why it is entitled Methodology & Results here above (Figures 1-3).
Figure 1: David Baltimore, an American virologist who classified viruses into 7 groups. David Baltimore (born 7 Mar.1938 and now age 85 as of 7 Mar. 2023).
Figure 2: Feleke Eriso Orbalo BSc, MSc, PhD., is an Ethiopian human parasitologist (immunoparasitologist), the Father of Perfect Law of Genomology, Genomic-things, Genomosphere, etc and of many other Principles & Concepts (born 24 Nov. 1962, age of 59 at present).
Figure 3: National flag of Ethiopia.
Feleke EO is:
the scientist who created Ethiopian Empire of Genomo sphere that covers 100% of Earth’s land & water surfaces on which the sun never sets,
the first integrator of Genomology, Chemistry, & Physics by way of the same language of Universal Reactions of Matter,
the first interpreter of the fact that both the undesirable genomic changes that result in genomic diseases and the desirable genomic changes in normal human genome which result in normal phenotypes in the individuals synthesized are countably infinite in potential number of kinds,
the first genomologist to prove the fact that viruses are certainly genomic-things,
the first genomologist who verified the best of truth with spectacular & concrete evidences about the fact that viroids are genomic-things,
the first genomologist to verify that the Genome’s coded/ designed directives are implemented by its transcripts & proteins. that serve as engineers in the metabolism of all genomic- things,
the first scientist on this planet (Earth) to define what a scientist (living-thing or genomic-thing) is. Before him, scientists didn’t know themselves, but they were creating other sciences,
the first scientist to interpret what the actual auto intracellular pathogen is in diseases of cancer & diabetes mellitus type 1,
the first scientist to state the clear-cut difference between the risk factors of cancer & the actual causative agent of cancer,
the first genomologist who proved that what had been wrongly termed therapeutic vaccines should be totally called adjuvants,
the first scientist to verify that Coley’s toxin was certainly a type of adjuvant.
the first scientist to interpret that immune response, epigenetic modifications/changes, syndromes, and symptoms observed are the evidential supersensitive responses of the human Genome,
the first scientist who stated that the development of cancer is always auto vaccinated with no exception,
the first scientist to introduce the terms Autovaccines and Autovaccination, Cancerous Genome, Autoinfection, auto intracellular pathogen, and Cancered Cells into the sciences of Genomology, the first scientist for dismissing the erroneous term called therapeutic vaccine, replacing it by therapeutic adjuvant or synonymously by adjuvant,
the first disqualifier & disprover of Endosymbiotic Theory about the origins of Mitochondrion & Chloroplast published by the authorship of Lynn Margulis,
the first scientist who disproved “Ganti’s definition of a living-thing (i.e., of a genomic-thing) together with the Nonenzymatic Chemoton Model of Minimal Life,”
the first genomologist to state that Genome is the unit of both structure & function of every individual of all genomic- things by dismissing the fake Cell Theory which stated that Cell is the unit of both structure & function of every individual of all living-things (i.e., genomic-things),
the first genomologist to state that Genome is the unit of evolutionary change of all genomic-things what was fakely stated that Darwin was the unit of evolutionary change of living- things,
the first scientist to state that the Genome of cancered cells named Cancerous Genome is the unit of both structure & function of all types of autoinfected cells that form lumps of tissue including benign tumor, primary & secondary metastatic tumours, and nontumor forming cancered cells such as lymphoma, leukaemia and myeloma,
the first scientist to state that Cancerous Genome synthesizes masses/colonies of autoinfected cells (lumps of tissue, benign tumours, malignant & metastatic tumours, including nontumor forming cancered cells such as myeloma and leukaemia), resulting in Cancer,
the first genomologist to state that Genome is the only operating/synthesizing system in every individual of all genomic- things by disproving what had been falsely stated that Darwin was the operating system of living-things,
the first scientist who identified the fact that the automatic molecular machine called Genome is the synthesizer of all genomic-things from viroids, viruses, bacteria up to angiosperms and humans,
the first scientist who evidentially declared that chemical composition of Genome of all genomic-things from that of viroids, viruses and microscopic organisms up to that of angiosperms and humans is the same being composed (built or made up) of nucleotides.
the super greatest scientist who removed the junk (Biology) from & added accuracy (Genomology) to the world of Natural Sciences,
the father of all scientists of all sciences of this planet (Earth) with no chance for exception,
the Father of the Perfect Law of Genomology,
the Father of Genome Model,
the father of genomic things,
the father of genomosphere that is in sunlight the whole 24 Hrs as the sun rises & sets in the genomosphere,
the father of nonstopping automatic generations of genomic reactions in every species of all genomic things from viroids, viruses, bacteria up to angiosperms and humans,
the father of superscience (science of nonstopping automatic genomic reactions for countably infinite number of generations), the universal omniscient in dismissing fake sciences of Biology & in generating correct sciences of Genomology, one of the Unique Educational Assets of all human races of this planet that money cannot buy,
the Superpower in Power of Mind in Genomological Sciences in the entire world with no rival & claimer forever, and
the Super greatest Scientist among all the Greatest Experimental and Theoretical Scientists known in the entire world at present & in all future time of human history to come. In summary, Feleke EO is the Super greatest scientist among all the Greatest in the Global Scientific Community of the entire world forever [1-21] (Figures 4-8), (Table 1).
Figure 5: Classification of viruses based on the obligatory relationship between viral Genome & its mRNA with the conventional positive sense (+).
Figure 6: Classification of viruses & the type of Genome present in virion with the conventional positive sense mRNA (+mRNA).
Figure 7a: Ethiopian Empire of Genomosphere that covers 100% of Earth’s land & water surfaces with its genomic-things.
Note*: Middle East is a part of continent Asia; Oceania means or represents continent Australia.
Figure 7b: Ethiopian Empire of Genomosphere that covers 100% of Earth’s land & water surfaces with its genomic-things.
Figure 8: Feleke Eriso Orbalo BSc, MSc, PhD., is an Ethiopian human parasitologist (immunoparasitologist), the Father of Perfect Law of Genomology, Genomic-things, Genomosphere, etc and of many other Principles & Concepts (born 24 Nov. 1962, age of 59 at present). Figure 3: National flag of Ethiopia.
As it can be seen from Table 2, UK has spectacularly been proved to be the top country in contributing Greatest Scientists of creating sciences for all human races of the world. The two major factors that enabled UK to be the best country in the entire world in contributing the largest number of Greatest Scientists in creating sciences are its:
Best Controlled Quality Education, and
Best Quality Reputable Journals.
Table 2: Videos of musical films displayed in honor of the uniquely automatic molecular machine termed Genome and top 25 Mike Tyson greatest Knockouts.
The fact that UK is the best country in contributing the largest number of Greatest Scientists in creating sciences for all human races of the world is imparted by the set of output and the counter checkable concreted evidence about UK’s being superpower in Best Controlled Quality Education, and in Best Quality Reputable Journals.
Since education is power, UK was enabled or capacitated to colonize many countries on the surface of Earth in the past human history because of its being empowered by Best Controlled Quality Education and based on that truth it had been stated as “the sun never sets on UK.” However, those colonized countries by UK are free at present. The phrase “the sun never sets on England” refers to the fact that the sun was always shining on at least one of the expanded British Empire’s historical territories or colonized countries that covered quarter (25%) of Earth’s land surface. Now, Feleke’s Genomosphere has covered 100% of Earth’s land & water surfaces, being termed Ethiopian Empire of Genomosphere. Thus, the sun never sets on Ethiopian Empire of Genomosphere. The Earth’s land surface is commonly divided into 7 continents: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. The water surface of the Earth includes: lakes, rivers, seas, and oceans.
The Super greatest Scientist in creating sciences (Father of Genomic- things) has been empowered by Education and he is the Father of Genomosphere that covers the entire world (planet Earth) with its inhabiting genomic-things of viroids, viruses and microscopic organisms up to angiosperms and humans forever with no rival and claimer.
i. Classification based on the structural & functional differences of Genome among viruses is the best and super accurate, because Genome is the unit of both structure & function in all genomic things with no trace of exception. In other words, at times of reproduction (self-replication) or synthesis of proteins in each type of virus, it is completely based on the characteristic algorithm or steps of reactions from its Genome to mRNA which is invariably the same final transcript for all seven classes (groups) of viruses.
Its (viral) to→ Genome to mRNA, in each of the seven classes of virus (see Figures 4-6).
ii. Not only in viruses, also among viroids, grouping or classification of viroids is absolutely based or forced to be based on the structural & functional differences of their Genome, because this is the only and spectacularly concreted truth with no competing option at all.
iii. The chemical composition of Genome of all genomic things from that of viroids, viruses and microscopic organisms up to that of angiosperms and humans is the same being composed (built or made up) of nucleotides. It is because of this similarity in chemical composition that about 8% of human Genome is said to be that of virus combined with or inserted into compatibly as an autograft or isograft instead of being rejected as a xenograft or an allograft.
iv. In Micro genomology, viroids, viruses and single-celled genomic-things are organisms of single-genomed individuals (single-genomed genomic-things) whereas genomic-things are referred to as multigenomic organisms (genomic-things). In this context, the term organism is equivalent to genomic-thing in meaning. In terms of size single-celled organisms are microscopic (can be seen only with a microscope), and viruses are sub microscopic whereas viroids are subviral. There are also multicellular organisms that are microscopic in size. For example, filarial worms are multicellular microscopic nematodes that cause filariasis in humans. On the other hand, any organism that can be seen with the naked eye (without a microscope) is called a macroorganism (a macrogenomic-thing). Thus, in terms of size all genomic-things can be categorized into four groups namely:
Subviralgenomic-things (Subviralorganisms,or Viroids),
Submicroscopicgenomic-things (Submicroorganisms, or Viruses),
Microgenomic-things (Microorganisms), and
v. Baltimore classification of viruses is free from bewildering and simplifies the understanding of information flow of viruses with different Genome configurations, because his scheme is based on pragmatic & obligatory relationship of viral Genome & its +mRNA.
vi. Genome encodes genes → Genes encode proteins.
vii. Baltimore’s focusing on the strong obligatory relationship of viral Genome & its mRNA in his scheme of classifying viruses, has made Baltimore classification of viruses the best scheme of all types of classification systems of viruses such as ICTV Classification, Holmes Classification and LHT Classification because the viral Genome he focused on is the only automatic molecular machine that synthesizes itself & every individual virus in each species of all genomic-vruses (i.e., as it does in all other genomic- things).
viii. The weak point of David Baltimore is that he had been enslaved by the fake sciences of Biology like any other biologist of the world or like any other professor of the fake biological sciences until the emergence of Genomology. Now, he is free being a genomologist (superscientist) with the Father of Genomology. ix. The fact that true sciences of Genomology have freed the scientific communities of the world from the dangerously paralyzing slavery imposed by fake sciences of Biology is undisputed.
x. Remember that in previous published articles, it has been proved that viruses & viroids are certainly genomic-things.
xi. Based on the concrete & evidential information we have at present, the best planet in the universe with the most compatible environment for humans & for other genomic things is the Earth which we have to safeguard by way of effective environmental protection. Note that the sciences of Genomology are the sciences of 1st priority to invest in with the highest validity for the well-being of humans!!!!
xii. If intensive research activity had been carried out and if attention had been given to sciences of Genomology as time & plenty of money had been invested in the fields of arms-race, the age (life-span) of individuals in Homo sapiens could have been increased from 100 to 200 years by this time!!
xiii. Hereafter, it is very strongly believed that genomologists (super scientists) will come up or emerge with wonderful findings or achievements in genomological sciences, because the only key automatic molecular machine called Genome that synthesizes itself & every individual of all genomic-things from viroids up to angiosperms and humans is known (identified).
xiv. Feleke Eriso Orbalo is the super greatest scientist who removed the junk (Biology) from & added accuracy (Genomology) to the world of Natural Sciences.
xv. The sun never sets on Ethiopian Empire of Genomosphere that covers 100% of Earth’s land & water surfaces forever with no rival and claimer.
xvi. The reason for why India and China who are superpowers in the aspects mentioned in Figure 8 have been found to be zero in contributing Greatest scientists in creating sciences is because they are better effective in businesizing or utilizing the created sciences rather than in creating sciences for the world. xvii. The Perfect Law of Genomology which states that Genome is the unit of both structure & function in every individual of all genomic-things is a type of scientific law that will never be outdated, existing (valid & accurate) forever with the scientific world of human races wherever/whenever they exist.
xviii. The Perfect Law of Genomology also states that Genome is the unit of evolutionary change.
Based on the universal reactions of matter, reupdated confirmation with the best of truth:
Superpower in Best Controlled Quality Education & in Best Quality Reputable Journals in the entire world is UK at present (with the publication fee being minimized down to £25 GBP in Favor of global progress/development of science & technology),
Superpower in Medical & Agricultural Sciences in the entire world is India at present,
Superpower in Economy in the entire world by dethroning USA with an excess of giant difference is China at present,
Superpower in Nuclear Military Science in the entire world is Russia at present, and
Superpower in Power of Mind in Genomological Sciences in the entire world with no rival & claimer is Ethiopia forever, being nondethronable endlessly for countably infinite number of the future generations of all human races to come!!!!
xix. Genomology is a Giant Ethiopian Science of educational asset contributed to all human races of the world by dismissing fake sciences of Biology that have been paralyzing scientific progresses of student children as well as MSc & PhD students of all human races of this planet (Earth) for centuries.
xx. Genomology consists of:
medical sciences, flourishing from Genomology, and
agricultural sciences, flourishing from Genomology.
xxi. Mike Tyson’s top 25 greatest knockouts are metaphorically similar to how true sciences of Genomology knocked out or dismissed fake sciences of Biology from the world of meaningful Natural Sciences (Watch Table 3, 3rd row, video 1).
I declare that no ethical error is committed in the production of this paper.
Conflict of Interest
I also declare that I don’t have any conflict of interest with anybody.
I am deeply grateful to scientists acknowledged in the text and list of references of this paper for their providing me with confidential data that can be counterchecked, for their correctness, with observable facts in the natural environment as well as with truths in reputable journals, and Internet. This is so because science cannot develop without science. I am really thankful to authors of musical art & musicians for their carefully following and transforming my published articles of genomological sciences into musical films. I am very strongly thankful to those global scientific communities for their genuinely following my task of performing to establish the sciences of Genomology and for their authentic thanking me by way of emails for what I have contributed to the scientific world of Genomology.
All of the past and present time individual members of the entire Global Scientific Community of Natural Sciences such as Antonie Van Leeuwanhoek of Dutch Republic (Netherlands), Antoine Lavoisier of France, Gregor Mendel of Austria, Crick & Watson of UK & USA respectively, Ivanovsky Dmitri of Russia, Toole G & Toole S of UK , Albert Einstein of Germany, Michael Faraday of UK , Edward Genner of UK, William B Coley of USA, Stanley B Prusiner of USA, David Baltimore of USA, Frederick William Twort of UK, Charles Babbage of UK, Sir Isaac Newton of UK, and William Harvey of UK are the Global Teachers who taught Father of the Perfect Law of Genomology. Thus, the Father of Perfect Law of Genomology is Proud of & he is also the Pride of his Global Teachers, because the purpose of teaching is to capacitate students to solve problems that had been said and believed impossible by the previous generations of human races.
I became the Super greatest Scientist in the world by learning from the famous and inspiring bests & greatest among the scientists of the world. In other words, Greatest Global Teachers of Science produced the Super greatest Scientist who is me. This is so because the key objective of Teaching & Learning is to make Students More Powerful than the Teacher in Novel, Academic, and All Rounded Productive Achievements; otherwise, there would be no point in the profession of teaching!!!! Profession of Teaching is the Parent Profession of All Professions known on Earth. The concreted evidence for the Greatestness of Global Teachers of Science who taught Feleke Eriso Orbalo, is Feleke’s being the:
Super greatest Scientist, and
Father of the Perfect Law of Genomology.
To the best of my knowledge, I Feleke EO declare that Love & Respect I have for my:
Educational Parents (Global Teachers of Science who taught me), and
Genomological Parents (my father & my mother) are exactly the same (Equational) (Table 2).
- Feleke E (2023) Cancerous Genome and Mass of Autoinfected Cells, Resulting in Cancer. British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies 4(3): 113-138.
- Feleke E (2023) Gemmological virus vs computer virus. British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies 4(3): 97-113.
- Feleke E Gemmology versus Biology. British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies: Health and Medical Sciences.
- Feleke E (2022) Toxic Prion: translation of a Genome’s gene with a toxic change. British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies: Health and Medical Sciences 3(2): 72-89.
- Feleke E (2022) Viroid’s and energy intake by human Genome. British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies: Health and Medical Sciences 3(2): 14-46.
- Feleke E (2022) Human Genome and origin of mitochondria. European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research 10(4): 33-56.
- Feleke E (2022) Effects of epigenetic groups & chromosomal proteins on human Genome expression by way of its genes and universal reactions of matter. International Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research 10(3): 26-58.
- Feleke E (2022) Genomic diseases in humans and weaponizing universal reactions of matter. European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research 10(2): 19-32.
- Feleke E (2022) Dismissal of the fake term called Living-thing by Genomic-thing and universal reactions of matter. European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research 10(2): 8-44.
- Feleke E (2021) Gemmology. European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research 9(5): 1-25.
- Feleke E (2021) Human Genome Response or Immune Response: human genome and its discrimination of self from nonself. International Journal of Development Research 11(12): 52358-52368.
- Feleke E (2021) Genome-sequence, zygote, differentiation of embryonic stem cells into structurally different specialized body cells in humans: there is no “junk DNA” at all in the human genome!!!! International Journal of Development Research 11(12): 52705-52718.
- Feleke E (2021) Role of genome model in type 1 diabetes mellitus and pathogenic mutation. EJBMSR 7(3): 35-48.
- Feleke E (2020) Genomic things. IJDR 10(5): 35498-35504.
- Feleke E (2018) Biological viruses are certainly living-things and switching off genomic metabolism. EJBMSR 6(5): 19-41.
- Feleke E (2018) Dynamic and detailed genome model of living-things. IJDR 8(08): 22138-22152.
- Feleke E (2018) Immune responses against auto intracellular pathogenic genomes or cancered cells. IJDR 8(07): 21489-21496.
- Feleke E (2018) Active and concrete evidence about sexual reproduction and life cycle in the parasitic generation of Strongyloidiasis stercoral is in human host. IJDR 8(07): 21385-21390.
- Feleke E (2018) Spectacular presence of parasitic males’ generation of Strongyloidiasis stercoral is in human host. Microbial Res Int 6(2): 16-23.
- Feleke E (2017) Genome model of living-things, definition of a living-thing, and the position of biological viruses among living-things. International Journal of Current Research (IJCR) 9(07): 53764-53778.
- Feleke E (2016) Super proof about sexual reproduction and life cycle in the parasitic generation of Strongyloidiasis stercoral is in human host, Afro-Egypt Infect End Dis 6(1): 1-6.
- Aryal S (2022) Baltimore classification of viruses 7.