Volume 12 - Issue 5

Mini Review Biomedical Science and Research Biomedical Science and Research CC by Creative Commons, CC-BY

The Biomedical Functions and Related Mechanisms of Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts from Different Plant-Based Food

*Corresponding author: Yixiao Shen, College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China.

Received: April 23, 2021; Published: May 06, 2021

DOI: 10.34297/AJBSR.2021.12.001800


Anthocyanins are a group of natural edible functional pigments, which not only provide the attractive color for plant, but also generate biomedical functions on various chronic diseases. Dietary interventions of anthocyanins are being investigated extensively which are associated with the prevention of chronic disorders and diseases. This review has summarized the latest research on the biomedical functions (including cholesterol control, asthma inflammation inhibition, retinal cells and liver fibrosis protection) of anthocyanin extracts from various food-based plants. The mechanisms of anthocyanin biomedical activity were attributed by the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties, as well as the ability to regulate gene expression and metabolic pathways.


Anthocyanins, a class of water-soluble pigments widely found in plants [1]. They have the typical structure of flavonoids and are derivatives of 2-phenylbenzocchidic cations with C6-C3-C6 as the basic backbone. Anthocyanins are glycoside derivatives of anthocyanidins. There are more than 300 different anthocyanins in nature. They were found in a variety of fruits and vegetables such as purple sweet potato, cranberry, cranberry, blueberry, grape, elderberry, black currant, purple carrot and red cabbage, ranging in color from red to blue [1]. The types of anthocyanins mainly include delchindin, cyanidin, petunidin and peonidin.

Anthocyanin has been already reported about its antioxidant ability and its effect on some chronic diseases. Epidemiological studies have found that long-term intake of plant foods rich in flavonoids can reduce the incidence of chronic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and generate anti-mutation and anti-tumor activities [2]. For example, red wine anthocyanin extracts had strong inhibitory activity against the growth of colon cancer cells HCT-15 and gastric cancer cells AGS [3]. Also, anthocyanin-rich extracts have exhibited great performance on attenuating low density lipoproteins oxidation, lipid peroxidation, dyslipidemia and reduced levels of CVD molecular biomarkers as well as improved total plasma antioxidant capacity [4]. Since the exploration of anthocyanin bioactivity continuously progresses, more biomedical functions of anthocyanin have been discovered. Therefore, in this review, the latest research on the biomedical functions of anthocyanin extracts such as the protective effect on asthma, hyperlipidemia, retinal damage etc. and the related mechanisms were introduced and discussed. It will provide essential information for develop functional food or dietary supplements using anthocyanin extracts.


It has been widely studied that anthocyanin extracts are associated with multiple bioactivities including scavenging free radical damage/oxidative stress, protecting cells, tissues and vital organs. This review has reported the latest biomedical functions of anthocyanin rich extracts such as antiglycation effect, cholesterol regulation, retinal cells protection and positive effect on asthma inflammation and liver fibrosis. It would provide essential information for consumers, healthcare providers, and the food and health industry to understand the relationship between anthocaynins and health. It is highly recommended that daily intake can mitigate the risk of diseases.


The review was supported by the Organization Department of Liaoning Province “Xingliao Talent Project” (XLYC1907107).

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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