Opinion Creative Commons, CC-BY
Intestinal E-cells and Problems in Nutrition
*Corresponding author: Manfred Doepp, Holistic Center, 13 Haupt St., Abtwil 9030, Switzerland.
Received: October 21, 2021; Published: October 26, 2021
Japanese people are slim, they grow old, and they have a cheap health care system. Westerners are 2/3 overweight, they suffer from chronic diseases in the last years of their lives, they grow old sick, health care systems are expensive and yet ineffective. This is how it can be stated if you look at the available data. In an international hotel, you can compare what a Japanese person eats for breakfast and what an American person eats for breakfast. It is completely different. For the Japanese, the hotel prepares: Soups, miso, tofu, seaweed, fermented vegetables; nothing sweet, no wheat, no cow’s milk, no sugar. For Americans, breakfast can’t be opulent enough: any amount of white bread, muffins, sweet spreads, jams, marmalades, any amount of coffee with milk; so, the main ingredients are wheat, cow’s milk and sugar.
Could there be a connection between the usual diet and the general health of the population? Could it be argued that people in Western civilization are degenerating? Like in ancient Rome, when only bread and games kept the population happy, although the Germanic tribes were already about to overrun Italy? In our practice we examine each patient’s allergies, especially to food.
Contrary to the usual opinions, we have to state that genetically manipulated products increasingly often trigger allergies and intolerances. It is obviously not the case that the mucous membrane in the gastrointestinal tract is incapable of distinguishing between natural and genetically modified food. Instead, it reacts to GMO with a rise of histamine. The histaminosis has become a general phenomenon. Friedrich Feyrter ( https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Friedrich_Feyrter) in 1934 found the so-called «HelleZellen» in the intestines which are part of our abdominal brain. It is more important than we know up to now. M. Ratzenhofer wrote an article: «Zur Biologie der endokrinen Zellen (= des Helle-Zellen- Organs, Feyrter) im Verdauungstrakt nach Untersuchungen am Kaninchenmagen» (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/ BF01746559 ) .
The Summary of His Article on This Topic Is:
«The electron microscopy delivers new criteria to the hitherto unclarified problems of the importance and relationship of the chromoargentaffin, argyrophile, oxyphile, empty and light (clear) manifestations of the Helle Zellen-Organ (FEYRTER) in the digestive tract. In the rabbit stomach, there are no different cell types; but there is only one cell type that offers very different aspects depending on its state of differentiation and secretion and on the method of fixation. Attempts are being made to make these electron microscopically different cell pictures agree with the numerous histological manifestations. A secretion cycle may be assumed in which the chromoargentaffin cell represents the fully differentiated, 5-HT-containing cell, the solely argyrophile cell the state after delivering of the hormone from the granules, and the empty cell the totally exhausted phase. New granules may originate from the latter.
Since the hitherto used, purely morphological cell-names take account of the respective aspect of the cell depending on secretion or fixation but do not consider their importance, the general term E-cell (endocrine cell) which expresses their uniformity and functional performance is proposed for all cell forms, e.g. argentaffin E-cell, argyrophile E-cell, empty E-cell, light E-cell a.s.o.»
The Intestinal Brain : E-Cells
We know that after a good meal without allergy or intolerance we experience a feeling of well-being. This is due to an increase in serotonin, which is produced in the E-cells. About 80% of the happiness hormones in the organism are formed in the E-cells of the small intestinal mucosa. In contrast, when we eat a meal with allergies or intolerances, the E-cells secrete histamine. We feel unwell, nervous, may have diarrhea or eczema, subsequently we become tired and exhausted.
We have learned that histamine should be avoided in foods, e.g. in red wine or in moldy cheese. However, more important is the own histamine production in the small intestine, when the immune system in the mucosa judges a food not as harmless, but as potentially dangerous. This applies in particular to large-molecule proteins such as gluten (protein in cereals) and casein (cow’s milk protein). The larger the molecular weight of a protein, the stronger its allergenic potency.
The comparison of the effects of the same products (natural versus GMO) showed that we humans can certainly distinguish between naturally grown foods and hybridized or genetically modified foods. GMO products often have an allergenic effect. Here, apparently, the Paleo Diet ideology is correct, which says that humans have become accustomed to and accepted what grows in nature over thousands of years of experiences. The genome was possibly programmed to integrate the experience of harmlessness.
The histamine/serotonin system was created by nature to help humans learn to identify and weed out toxic or harmful foods. This was useful for a long time. Today, however, this system has become overwhelmed and inadequate. It reacts negatively to a large part of our food. For example, we compared old-fashioned apples from high-trunk trees with newer apples from shrubs, a clear difference. Or we compared an old corn variety with a GMO corn, the latter was rejected. We found the same when comparing Italian hard wheat with American hybridized soft wheat, the latter was usually rejected.
The harmfulness of glucose and sucrose is well known, and the incidence of diabetes is rapidly increasing. But lactose and fructose are also more and more causing intolerances. Unfortunately, this also affects many fruits that are considered healthy but no longer are. Or: let’s take a typical meal in a fast food restaurant: almost all ingredients are harmful.
Some vegetables contain lectins when fresh, which are toxic to humans. These lectins are denatured by heating during boiling, frying or other forms of cooking, and are converted into a harmless chemical form. Beans, peas, chickpeas and soybeans should therefore only be consumed cooked.
The toxic effect of lectins in the diet is that they cause red blood cells to clump together. Above a certain level, some lectins cause headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal distress; in extreme cases, consumption can be fatal. In particularly lectinrich species, such as fire beans, as few as four or five raw seeds can cause serious symptoms in adults.
The scientific work of Friedrich Feyrter has been largely forgotten, only a few scientists are interested in the E-cells as a mixture of endocrine system and abdominal brain. However, this topic is very important.
We can conclude that the tendency in our western world to genetically modify seeds for the purpose of increasing food production has negative effects. Our abdominal brain - mainly represented by the E-cells (Feyrter’s bright cells) - can judge the naturalness and harmlessness of our food. The more unnatural, the more likely histamine is released instead of serotonin, and the more civilization diseases increase. Above all, obesity seems to become our fate in the Western world.