Volume 21 - Issue 3

Research Article Biomedical Science and Research Biomedical Science and Research CC by Creative Commons, CC-BY

The Dis (Ease)Ability Theory-New Step The Real Narration Possible: Resilient Reaction Thrust, Constant Condition Over Time, Potential Development Potential

*Corresponding author:Raffaella Conversano, I.C. “Bianco-Pascoli”, Fasano (BR), Italy, Adjunct Professor Laboratory of Special Needs Education, For.Psi.Com., University of Bari, Italy, UTL University of free time “San Francesco D’Assisi” Fasano (BR)-Puglia.

Received: January 27, 2024; Published: February 02, 2024

DOI: 10.34297/AJBSR.2024.21.002847


This new work starts from the analysis that has rarely taken into consideration those subjects who, with their difficulties of action, are defined “disabled” and undermine educational acts in the classroom. In promoting a change of thought that meant a real change of attitudes functional to the promotion of the individual’s autonomy, through the construction of skills to encourage the learning process, I stated that we are all subject to “resilient states” but, in those subjects with a diagnosis, in their narration, this state stands as the constant capacity in time to redesign the relationship with his/her environment of - emotional, social, formative, affective life-thus enhancing himself/herself and his/her context.

Therefore, the objective of the true narration is given by the analysis of the resilient reaction thrust that the individual matures in his/her lifetime, according to his/her age, where each training step will have its relationship of resilient thrust or reaction to it in order to achieve his/her potential development. In the educational field, therefore, the functional availability to learning, to achieve the maximum possible autonomy of the person is given by the resilient evolution of the same to his state where, the “Narration” is nothing more than the description of this evolution in connection with the residual operation determined in ICF-CY code. Only in this way it will be possible to organize appropriate methodological/didactic strategies at school level, empathetic on the affective/ relational level. Consequently, it will be possible to improve personal autonomy in working contexts and the expected results will only be successful. Thus, the person’s vision becomes “new” because it is analyzed as the result of a series of factors that represent the reference context in which he/she lives and expresses his/her capabilities.

Keywords: Disability, Narration, Education, Resilience, Thrust of reaction


This research improves the work that previously I made on "Narration" as a functional pedagogical strategy for the teacher in "knowing how to decode the subject and his/her communication" in order to make the teaching/learning process more effective giving equal educational opportunities to all. It is necessary to pass from the idea of an "APPARENT" person, described by clinical analysis, to a more "REAL" vision of a person given by the functional "NARRATION". In fact, to plan a path of equal educational success, I underlined in my previous study the initial need for the specialized teacher to acquire, directly from the person and/or family members, all the elements that concern not only the areas of study and interest of the subject but also and especially the personal ones, to understand the functional diversity of use of the various skills towards the interaction with the outside, in order to calibrate the educational/training tools most suitable to increase the autonomy process; only later we can choose the most appropriate teaching intervention strategy focusing on the skills and interests highlighted. In addition, it is fundamental to motivate the learner as much as possible. To complete what was previously said and successfully experimented at school, I turned my attention to an aspect often disregarded in the student's cognitive investigation, namely "Resilience". It is to understand not only in its more intimate meaning as the ability to face positively traumatic events, reorganizing our life struggling against difficulties and rebuilding a new life, catching the positive opportunities that life offers without alienate n the educational field instead of remaining in a problematic vision of the person and of his/her Dis-Enabling disability, identifying the possible solutions as a further sequence of difficulties[1-3].

In fact, being "human" is hard work so, I strongly believe that we should change our attitudes and performance especially in those contexts where we promote the autonomy of the individual, through the development of skills to encourage the learning process. The "normal" themselves suggested me the real solution, revealing the importance to really understand what "disability" and "disabled" mean, because before the disabled person and his/her disability we should think how they work not only but , making a brief connection to the theme of the conference, just as the Chefs do not fear customers as, before satisfying them, they aim to satisfy the exigent palates, for which they have raised the educational quality of their profession, as well as in the world of training and/or education one should not fear the various features of students within the classes. It is not a question of giving "notions" but, the aim of the teacher/trainer must become that of "aspiring to delicious minds", that is to use different teaching methods for those who suffer from pathologies, disorders or syndromes. We must stop calling them "special need students" but PRELIBLE and SURFINE MINDS and, if we are unable to satisfy them ... then the problem is elsewhere [4-6].

Resilient Reaction Thrust

Disability is not a choice: it is a trauma that no one would ever want to experience, because it deeply upsets the individual in modifying interpersonal relationships. As a consequence, the deficit imposes, a new type of social interaction; it is not a question of denying the impairment that in fact limits the individual’s functions and actions, to overcome, when it is not possible to completely eliminate it, the outcome of prejudices, cultures and social relationships unable to see individuals in the full sense beyond the impairment. Every day at school, problems related to learning difficulties, inclusion and integration are emerging, while on the other hand, we try to find solutions thanks to the help of the experts, almost always seen as the only real resources. In this field, which is so strictly educational, it is necessary to satisfy those problems that learning difficulties and psycho disabilities generally bring to light; in fact, we are deeply convinced that "we educate through what we say, more than through what we are", disability itself brings into being the need to elaborate a shared vision of the problems and the awareness of it according to a re-reading in a holistic key : our aim should be that to find different ways and styles of learning as a resource in order to consider the clinical pathology a guideline to be observed and kept as a reference point to calibrate and adapt our method of teaching. We should aim to encourage the process of teaching and learning [7-10].

The idea is simple: instead of restricting the field of performative autonomy of the person with diversified abilities, also because of his/her clinical and/or pathological status as it still happens, we should make sure that this is an integral part of the field of action of the person according to a resilient reading in knowing how to live our life as a protagonist, reducing the dependence on our context. In fact, as the presence of disability involves at the same time the subject and his/her surrounding world, creating new relationships, new hopes, new impressions, a new sense of solitude so the perception of the subject and of those around him change, trying to improve his/her relationships with the outer world. Not taking this into consideration or not respecting this analysis leads to misunderst and inability. As a consequence, in our daily practice and even teaching we consider the clinical diagnosis as a barrier to the individual towards society and we finish to consider him according to the common stereotype of disability that is "dis(agi)ability". In fact, when I say "Dis(agi)ability", I redefine the real obstacles that children, pupils and disabled people in general live and/or meet: I don’t mean the different “able “approach with the surrounding reality, how to manage daily routine, for example but I mean how they can cope with the fears and anxieties of those who are around them.

Particular attention deserves the focus "pathology and nutrition", often overlooked as a cognitive study on the educational level. Many stressful situations linked to the various deficits see students as "snack thieves" without considering that through these habits children want to communicate their emotional problems. However, we often see parents who satisfy the requests for delicacies of their children to make them be quiet without considering the damage that incorrect nutrition can further cause, exacerbating the clinical consequences, in their children especially in their school performances. The eating disorder is and must be one of the first channels of narrative investigation within the analysis of residual functioning in the ICF-CY code. It is necessary that research and training channels are activated on a global study level [11-12].

Moreover, the disabled is not an alien or a different race, he is not an endangered animal or a pet, he is not an individual in a temporary mode, he is:

i. a bewildered and amazed look on a fast and turbulent world.

ii. a person through whom we can rediscover our calm and wisdom.

iii. the idea of a vanished memory, of a familiar image that comforts us but whose company we often refuse.

iv. the many faces of our true weaknesses and difficulties built as an alibi not to face reality and its daily challenges.

We are all "disabled" and we all have experienced difficulty or will do in the future" Therefore, with the definition of "Resilient Reaction", I clearly highlight the attention to the observation of the situation of difficulty of the subject with different skills, to "see" the problem and the possible further solutions of autonomy in their entirety. My aim is to best deal with it by creating a space in which experiences and professionalism can find the right expression while respecting roles and skills. We should consider closely all the steps that the individual has gained over time, considering his/her ages, in the academic path where each training step will have its relationship of resilient thrust of the subject or of reaction to the same. Only through this specific analysis we can well interpret the person and his/her narration. In this way, it is necessary to foster an effective relationship in the school environment and not only, to promote an efficient and effective learning of knowledge and skills, encouraging the mastery of innovative approaches also in relation to the monitoring and evaluation of the impact of training actions, promoting specific skills in disciplinary areas of work; nevertheless, in spite of this, the attention is directed towards the diagnostic individuation of the various cases, strongly involving the school in this dynamic, forgetting that its primary role is to stimulate the individuation, through the methodological-didactic push of flexible communication paths functionalized on the peculiarities of personal approach, in order to favor full autonomy of access to information, equipment, public and private structures for a complete social life[13-15].

Constant Condition Over Time

I strongly state how important is to change the false behavioral interpretations of those who have relationships with people with different skills. In fact, the presence of a deficit must not prevent us from respecting them and developing the residual potential functional part to make them live a normal life: in other words, because of their psychic or physical deficit they should not be identified as "those who are not able to understand or to live" according to the common canons of normality. In fact, the "Constant Condition in Time" is the phase that the subject, under the "Push of Resilience", lives or is forced to maintain continuously in order to reach those that are its potential for development in situations that activate it such as the context of his/her emotional, social, working life, the performance, the barrier behaviors or a wrong clinical recognition of the state in which it remains for life. He recognizes his clinical dimension and activates all the possible resilient actions to align with the others, for example at school with his/her peers, only to be or not be recognized as a negative subject. The positive implication of this survey is that it proposes a new theoretical and pedagogical reading of the analytic re functionalization of the student favoring his/her teaching/learning process. It aims to get a full achievement of his/her personal autonomy through the "Synergy" that is, the optimal integration of more elements to pursue a common goal, to obtain a more satisfactory effect than what they would obtain separately, an ethical and human richness in reconsidering and bringing the other closer together.

It is not a matter of considering that the disabled and/or in any case people with different skills can learn like everyone else, they can, of course, but the problem is to consider that there is no culture and an enough knowledge to learn "the disabled" and the diversity of culture, of thought and of approach they have. It is necessary to learn and to consider the individual in his/her widest and most intrinsic uniqueness. So, the school inclusion of different abilities should mean the usage of good practices to experience on the ground, to examine through tests, to detect their validity and maybe find some possible alternative measures. It is not a matter of teaching in a new way, but of understanding and grasping from such previous resilient experiences of such students. Only by doing this the teacher's educational project can become new in teaching. So this new interpretation of our educational reality is proposed as a real resource within the educational process, giving rise to models and styles of teaching/learning not only innovative but based on collaborative and bi-directional communication processes. When I started to outline in this text the new theoretical and operational ideas of my research, I started from the contextual analysis that daily intrigued and stimulated my attention not only at my workplace, about all those wrong attitudes and currents of thought towards those people who, with their difficulties of action and defined by common place and for the "disabled" antonomasia, undermine the serenity of the common man[16-18].

Moreover recognizing a diversified habilitating status linked to the presence of clinical pathologies and/or pervasive disorders in an individual, means to recognize a process of change with respect to common canons in addition to the "rights" of such persons founded on the equality of the rights of all human beings; it is the enhancement of diversity that thus becomes a resource considering the potential and abilities of people (with disabilities) in the positive aspects of their full participation in human and social development.

Therefore, with my research I aimed to a new vision of the individual analyzed as a consequence or as a result of a series of personal and environmental factors that represented the reference context in which he/ she lives and expresses his/her abilities, where every process of cultural change requires the re-implementation of information and knowledge. But what is of great importance is to develop a common language on the disabling pathology to acquire the suitable narration of the individual functional development processes to autonomy, to concretely realize the "opportunities" that can be spent for everyone [19].

To say the truth this is the novelty also defined by the ICF-CY worldwide code, if we should recognize, analyze and distinguish the two separate but well-fused paths in the person: the Functioning and Disability one, or the elements that determine his/her condition of health and social participation. I add that we must also consider the constant resilience pushes that are consequently overcome by the clinical evolution and by the environment of the subject. It follows that, if the "Functioning" concerns all those aspects that are considered "positive" in a person, that is what that person is able to do alone with his/her experiences, knowledge, skills, creativity, etc., the "Disability" concerns all that in a "negative" way is linked to the functioning, that is to what a person has difficulty in doing, not because he is incapable but because he is prevented by internal factors (pathologies, impairments, etc.) and external (architectural barriers or maybe not), where the "Resilience" becomes the ability of the subject to positively reshape the relationship with his/her environment, enhancing himself/herself and his/her context, living his/her life as a protagonist and reducing dependence on the others–that is functional autonomy. All this is determined by the presence or by the absence, of more or less serious impairments or disturbances concerning body functions and/or structures and contextual factors, that is the positive or negative influence that the environment, the dimension in which the individual lives, can have on his/her emotional functioning.

This focus has been an important reference in the co-contextual analysis of the various cases I studied, to deeply analyze them in order to get to operational solutions not only credible in their applicability but, above all, bearers of a solution of the expected results, since the information that was provided by the medical diagnosis was not sufficiently adequate to have the real residual functional framework of the individual (what he/she was still able to do and what, however, could do with difficulty even if he/she was given longer time for his/her performance). It was not a matter of justifying disturbances, reactions and/ or behaviors apparently labeled as divergent from the common social denominator, but of gathering from them all those imputations that the individual with his/her narration offers to bring him/her back to common life. In order to make it happen I aimed, in a sentimentally empathetic way, to take charge of the process of "caring" for the other, to be a vehicle between the individual-with his/her complexity-and the rest of the system.

I decided to "be", as a "medium", the information leaflet of medicine boxes of the "disabled" as a precious thing to understand and discover in a new way; as a teacher I was willing to put the other at ease, to talk to the individual and not to his/her pathology happy to meet him/her and not to fear the reactive presence of his/her disorders, live and work with him/her exceeding what I saw around me from those who merely "looked after him/her", as if they were the individual’s nurse. These are precious ingredients to consider if we want to understand the delicate process of functioning. Precisely from this process I left to solve immediately or to have more dilated examples, collecting and analyzing every single symptom seen in my presence and/or perceived by the others, channeling this information into the slow construction of a puzzle. When even the last card started to fit together, I had the whole solution in my hands: it was enough to simply fit all the pieces and give the instructions to deliver a new person who nobody would have trusted, but of whom each of us would take advantage, to the social context.

Potential Development Potential

The pervasive presence of disability or better, of concrete contexts of "disability" in social daily life, poses problems of various dimensions: psycho-pedagogical, organizational and didactic, where the idea of a new re-examination of the experience is particularly suitable for describing and circumscribing that set of situational contexts that include all the activities related to communication, the manipulative-visual expression, sound-music, audio-visual and mass media in continuous interweaving.

Actually, today the problem arises in a different way for two fundamental reasons:

i. the increasingly frequent relations between the various operating contexts

ii. the evident objective transversality, that reaches its maximum level when the verbal and the extra verbal languages intermingle.

In this new perspective the personal experience of the disabled becomes a precious asset that we must not only disperse, disarticulate in many operative/manual "drawers", but we must take care of it and keep it undamaged making it grow and rise, having a new concept as a compass of the world of knowledge: complexity. As a consequence we can deduce that the functional learning availability to achieve the maximum possible autonomy of the individual is given by the "Resilient Evolution" of him/her to his/her clinical, pathological state, or other, where the "Narration" is the description of this evolution: the "apparent individual" is what the others see before he/she activates his/her resilient state while, the "real person" is the resilient evolution of himself/herself. Therefore, we should teach specific skills in those who have different types of approaches-the so-called "disabilities" considering his/her complex personal knowledges and experiences giving them the cues for a more personal realization "homologating" "our normal way of life to them. Yet, we continue to keep on using functional approaches, creating continuous conflicts, depressive states, anxieties and frustrations with closures and escapes by so-called "sick" and with a sense of defeat in the so-called "normal", when instead, a different reading would simplify everything [20].

The theoretical application of disability that, thus proposed becomes a solution in the dynamics of approach with diversity in general, arises essentially from the need to implement procedures and even instrumental projects for specific needs that are little diffused, detaching themselves from the empiric lines of "psycho technology" "theorized by de Kerckhove, to get, through pragmatic approaches, the concrete vygotskjiana theory of the" of proximal development zone ". Thought in its universality of approach, this analysis of mine is well connected not only to the life of the disabled but to its multifaceted facets - see for example the stranger with difficulty in understanding the linguistic communication codes that, if he join a context that does not favor the understanding of these codes, lives a condition of broad "disability", contributing to a further situation of extraneousness, exploitability and in any case of social distance–a similar situation occurs in those who have suffered disabling traumas and are temporarily or permanent excluded from the context they belong to. It is necessary to structurally intervene on those critical factors that normally affect the efficient approach to integration, implementing new hypotheses of solution. Its focus is part of the heuristics vision where, if the task of the research is to favor the access to new empiric developments, it is exactly in the heuristic process that the ideal support to create it is placed as it relies on the intuition and the temporary state of circumstances, to generate new knowledge as a method of approaching problem solving.

In fact, along with the heuristics, in my survey I show the ways and the possible strategies to activate in order to make progressive, applicable and evolutive the inter communicability with disabilities or to find approaches to life contexts, thus ensuring a constant empirical development to foresee new facts, where, if the results hypothesized by the various theories come out standardized, with the application of the "Functional Narrative in pushing of resilience" it evolves according to the result that reaches the moment of its adherence to the context where it is the case that redefines the new structure of the theory itself and nothing else. It is precisely in the examination of these elements the key to the application, that is the importance of the belief that guides our steps, the logical levels in which we move. If we reverse our identity, our beliefs, our skills, our behaviors and our environments, respect to limiting beliefs, if we change the route we allow to achieve common goals for everyone and in full awareness of success. In this regard, it is useful to consider how the practice has confined to the welfare figures limitating and non-stimulating roles towards disabilities and their contexts, where the pathologically involved person is locked up in a stereotype from which he cannot go out and where, his/her own protests are analyzed and treated as clinical reactions of the pathology and not as requests for help of the person to live normally.

This is the case, for example, of what happens in schools with a special need teacher-still considered a "support"-and paraphrasing the scene of a famous film *(Colonel Trautman: "Do not think you understand "I did not like to rescue Rambo from you." (Film "Rambo" (First Blood) 1982 directed by director Ted Kotcheff, based on the novel by David Morrell), we deeply desire the presence of the special need teacher in the classroom to free the curriculum teachers "from Rambo", while his/her fundamental and therefore special role is precisely to support, help and coordinate the educational, educational and instructive action of the teachers themselves so that they work "with Rambo" , first and foremost functionalizing all the methods to make disciplinary teaching fluid, extrapolating it from mechanistic artifices in which it often hides, so that its flexibility can allow everyone to fully participate and get his/her formative success. In fact, according to the modern pedagogical interpretation, the teacher should not only transmit information but also enthusiasm to bring out the best from his/her pupils, where for a long time the education of disabled people was considered a part of the educational system to be implemented separately and with specific methods, while a true special education should be understood as a process through which one must contribute to developing "normalization", to promote integration and equal opportunities, to guarantee the full exercise of their rights so as to improve their quality of life[21].


Special education does not walk on different paths than the "normal" one, even if this educational action makes use of the diagnostic support with systematic, intentional, prolonged, specific actions and where planning becomes an indispensable operation for its drafting. The study of disability and that of the person’s tastes and choices, even if they belong to different areas of knowledge and action, need professionally valid integrations within who, by choice or necessity, must deal with the person concretely, making opportune interventions in relation to the emerging needs of the subjects in their anthropological, existential, clinical, pedagogical-didactic, psychiatric and educational dimensions. The incumbent risk is that the conflict between the various people involved and the different problems coming from disability make us consider not of first importance the individual’s needs and his/her sufferings. But, within the educational and training system, how could we integrate the troubled boy, with behavioral disorder syndromes, the extra community individual , the hyperactive student, the dyslexic, the shy, the visually impaired and many other cases that, sometimes, coexist in the same class? Simply redefining the role of the teacher, the educators and the whole professional paradigm that revolves around the person with disabilities, learning disabilities and/or different communication behaviors, where the functional analysis of the person and his/her state is represented by the perspective of active education: making the learning subject protagonist of his/her own learning beyond the difficulties he/she shows, making the educational experience itself become a path of cooperation between the different actors.

We should shift our attention from the status of knowledge of the subject with his/her real tools and the capability to use them to complexity. We should promote the evolution of the planning of learning communication. However, not all the teachers are willing to grasp this peculiar nuance , they are more and more concerned only with the individual and his/her developments: we should always refresh our educational background since what is experienced at school remains strongly imprinted, identifying it as a happy place for collective life to favor or less the active adaptation in children to this context, understood as a space to "live" and not to "suffer". Being able to give voice to one's inner world, to make oneself understood and to understand the messages of others is fundamental so as to promote the psychological well-being and the intellectual and rational growth of each individual; in particular, the subject in difficulty or better, the subject who with his/her peculiarities of diversified approach puts the normal in difficulty, needs to have effective communication tools to meet their needs, to use the skills that gradually acquire, to integrate in society and prepare for an autonomous adult life. Finding the best solutions to help him/her to build these skills is a challenging and not easy task, which poses numerous doubts and problems to face as each student has peculiarities and difficulties that make it unique and different from the others, and that is why the teacher, the better one, is able to cut one's work around the specific characteristics of each one.

Often the refusal of the school, of knowledge, and the difficulties they find in learning activities are because they don’t find interesting and simplified school activities according to their skills. Communication and simplification of access can help them to be really included and integrated. But where this is not possible it is necessary to evaluate the single individual story, the overcoming of the various barriers, the barrier of relationships and cultural distances, as well as the various approaches to disability itself that modify the expectations and behavior of family members. According to an idea of Kantian philosophy, man reaches humanity only through education where the task of the educator should be that of finding out what a child's interest is to help him to fulfill it. I am more than certain that my work has brought me closer to this goal.

* English Review by Prof. Dalila Brancone

Freelance Interpreter and Translator; Secondary School English Teacher at I.C.” Di Nanni Europa Unita” Grugliasco (TO) .



Conflict of Interest



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