Opinion Creative Commons, CC-BY
Reduce the Human Antibiotic Resistances: Smart-WC and Good Practices?
*Corresponding author: Giancarlo Ranalli, Department of Bioscience and Territory, University of Molise, Italy.
Received: September 05, 2019;Published: September 09, 2019
Antibiotic resistances; Smart-WC; Good practices
The use and abuse of antibiotics in several systems for human and animal therapy, in industrial and agricultural application have induced into the spead in different environmental habitats an accumulation of high level/concentration of such agents. These compounds caused alteration of the natural microbial balance by the suppressiveness of great number of positive non-pathogenic bacteria and the increase in the amount of negative drug resistant pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria to be or become resistant to antibiotics, thus managing to survive and multiply even in the presence of the drug. This is a public health problem at European and global level, due to the excessive and improper use of these drugs. The alarm is recurrent! In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Center for Prevention and Control of Diseases reported that there was an increase in Europe of resistance in Gram negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The data of the most recent WHO report 2017 and of the European Center for the Control of Infectious Diseases (ECDC) state that due to the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics there are over 671,000 cases of infection, to which 33,000 deaths are attributable.
The constant increase in the environment of antibioticresistant microbial forms is real emergency and therefore every year results in a significant increase in deaths caused by microbial infection from resistant strains. Antibiotic resistance is a European (or better global) phenomenon that has been constantly spreading in recent decades. The introduction of penicillin in 1929 offered the possibility of eradicating infectious diseases but also caused the appearance of bacteria resistant to the action of the antibiotics themselves. In fact, a large part of the drugs we take is eliminated as such by urine and faeces, while the existing purifiers are designed to reduce the organic load in the wastewater but not to eliminate the drugs that may be present and very diluted in them. In fact, these plants work through biological systems of activated sludge or rotating disks and are based on the presence of a microbial community adapted to decompose the easily biodegradable organic substances of which they feed, thus impoverishing the discharge. However, the microflora in sewage treatment plants is not able to eliminate the cocktail of antibiotics (non biodegradable) which are therefore found into the aquatic environment as sea, rivers and lakes causing bio‐accumulation [1,2].
To date, antibiotics and metabolites in wastewater would not have a direct negative effect on people but on environmental bacteria, increasing their resistance to antibiotics: an example among the many is Escherichia coli. Releasing of antibiotics by human beings and animals depends mainly on the consumption rates of antibiotics: Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece are countries that consume more antibiotics than other Northern European countries . Since 2012, very little or nothing has been done. We must act and immediately to stop the risk to which humanity is exposed. Today the solutions can only partly derive from already known considerations (total separation between classes of antibiotics for zootechnical use and for human use; more information on the good use of antibiotics and on the risks of abuse; compliance with therapies in cases of administration, avoid misuse and do it yourself, etc.). But all this is not enough; if we really want to interrupt the cycle that lasts between use (although correct as prescribed by correct diagnosis of the disease) and release of antibiotics into the environment, we must start from the awareness of having to intervene from different perspectives as well as from concrete and innovative actions: the devices Smart-WCs type can be a valuable contribution.
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